ROS 2.0 Design

This site is repository of articles which are designed to inform and guide the ROS 2.0 design efforts. The goal of the ROS 2.0 project is to leverage what is great about ROS 1.x and improve what isn’t.

If you would like to contribute, checkout the contribute page to learn how.

The best mailing list for discussing these topics is You can view the archives here


Here is a list of the articles (white papers) which have been written so far. These articles should serve as an excellent entry point for anyone wanting to join the conversation about any of the ROS 2.0 topics.

Why ROS 2.0?

This article captures the reasons for making breaking changes to the ROS API, hence the 2.0.


This article makes the case for using DDS as the middleware for ROS, outlining the pros and cons of this approach, as well as considering the impact to the user experience and code API that using DDS would have. The results of the “ros_dds” prototype are also summarized and used in the exploration of the issue.

ROS on ZeroMQ and Friends

This article makes the case for using ZeroMQ and other libraries to implement a new, modern middleware for ROS. This article also covers the results of the ZeroMQ based prototype made by OSRF.

RPC API design in ROS

This article is an exploration of possible design patterns for the next generation of ROS Remote Procedure Call interfaces. We focus here on specifying the user API and leave the implementation unspecified. It is expected that there are one or more RPC implementations which can be used, such as Apache Thrift, ROS RPC, or MsgPack.

Parameter API design in ROS

This article is proposed design for the interfaces for interacting with parameters in ROS 2.0. We focus here on specifying the system design and leave the implementation unspecified.

ROS 2 middleware interface

This article describes the rational for using an abstract middleware interface between ROS and a specific middleware implementation. It will outline the targeted use cases as well as their requirements and constraints. Based on that the developed middleware interface is explained.

The meta build system “ament”

This article describes the meta build system “ament”.

Interface definition

This article specifies the file format describing the data structures exchanged by ROS 2 components to interact with each other.

Mapping between ROS interface types and DDS IDL types

This article specifies the mapping between the ROS interface types and the DDS types.

Generated C++ interfaces

This article describes the generated C++ code for ROS 2 interfaces.

Clock and Time

This article describes the ROS primitives to support programming which can run both in real time as well as simulated time which may be faster or slower.

Generated Python interfaces

This article describes the generated Python code for ROS 2 interfaces.

Introduction to Real-time Systems

This article is a brief survey of real-time computing requirements and methods to achieve real-time performance.

Proposal for Implementation of Real-time Systems in ROS 2

Proposal for a test-driven approach to the real-time performance requirement in ROS 2.

Migration guide from ROS 1

This article has been moved to

Changes between ROS 1 and ROS 2

This article provides an overview about the changes being made in ROS 2 compared to ROS 1.

Topological Discovery and Communication Negotiation

This article lays out the logical components and possibilities within a discovery and transport negotiation system. This article was written to try and understand the different possibilities for how the middleware could be implemented.

Managed nodes

This article describes the concept of a node with a managed life cycle. It aims to document some of the options for supporting manage d-life cycle nodes in ROS 2. It has been written with consideration for the existing design of the ROS 2 C++ client library, and in particular the current design of executors.

ROS 2.0 Quality of Service policies

This article describes the approach to provide QoS (Quality of Service) policies for ROS 2.0.

ROS 2.0 Message Research

This article captures the research done in regards to the serialization component, including an overview of the current implementation in ROS 1.x and the alternatives for ROS 2.0.

Additional Resources