ROS 2.0 Design

This site is repository of articles which are designed to inform and guide the ROS 2.0 design efforts. The goal of the ROS 2.0 project is to leverage what is great about ROS 1.x and improve what isn’t.

If you would like to contribute to this site, checkout the contribute page to learn how. If you would like to contribute to the ROS 2.0 project, see this page for more details.

The best mailing list for discussing these topics is, the Special Interest Group on Next-Generation ROS mailing list. You can view the archives here.


Here is a list of the articles (white papers) which have been written so far. These articles should serve as an entry point for anyone wanting to join the conversation about a variety of the topics that relate to ROS 2.0.


Why ROS 2.0?

This article captures the reasons for making breaking changes to the ROS API, hence the 2.0.

Stories driving the development

This article captures some stories which drive the direction of features in ROS.

The build system “ament_cmake” and the meta build tool “ament_tools”

This article describes the build system “ament_cmake” and the meta build tool “ament_tools”.

A universal build tool

This article describes the rationale for a universal build tool.

Changes between ROS 1 and ROS 2

This article provides an overview about the changes being made in ROS 2 compared to ROS 1.



This article makes the case for using DDS as the middleware for ROS, outlining the pros and cons of this approach, as well as considering the impact to the user experience and code API that using DDS would have. The results of the “ros_dds” prototype are also summarized and used in the exploration of the issue.

ROS 2 middleware interface

This article describes the rationale for using an abstract middleware interface between ROS and a specific middleware implementation. It will outline the targeted use cases as well as their requirements and constraints. Based on that the developed middleware interface is explained.


Interface definition

This article specifies the file format describing the data structures exchanged by ROS 2 components to interact with each other.

Mapping between ROS interface types and DDS IDL types

This article specifies the mapping between the ROS interface types and the DDS types.

Generated C++ interfaces

This article describes the generated C++ code for ROS 2 interfaces.

Generated Python interfaces

This article describes the generated Python code for ROS 2 interfaces.


ROS on ZeroMQ and Friends

This article makes the case for using ZeroMQ and other libraries to implement a new, modern middleware for ROS. This article also covers the results of the ZeroMQ based prototype made by OSRF.

RPC API design in ROS

This article is an exploration of possible design patterns for the next generation of ROS Remote Procedure Call interfaces. We focus here on specifying the user API and leave the implementation unspecified. It is expected that there are one or more RPC implementations which can be used, such as Apache Thrift, ROS RPC, or MsgPack.

Parameter API design in ROS

This article is proposed design for the interfaces for interacting with parameters in ROS 2.0. We focus here on specifying the system design and leave the implementation unspecified.

Introduction to Real-time Systems

This article is a brief survey of real-time computing requirements and methods to achieve real-time performance.

Proposal for Implementation of Real-time Systems in ROS 2

Proposal for a test-driven approach to the real-time performance requirement in ROS 2.

Clock and Time

This article describes the ROS primitives to support programming which can run both in real time as well as simulated time which may be faster or slower.

Topic and Service name mapping to DDS

This article describes the proposed mapping between ROS topic and service names to DDS topic and service names.

Remapping Names

Topics, parameters, and services are identified by Names. Names are hard coded in ROS nodes, but they can be changed at runtime through remapping. Without remapping every instance of a node would require changes in code. This article describes the requirements, rationale, and mechanisms for remapping names in ROS 2.

Migration guide from ROS 1

This article has been moved to

Topological Discovery and Communication Negotiation

This article lays out the logical components and possibilities within a discovery and transport negotiation system. This article was written to try and understand the different possibilities for how the middleware could be implemented.

Managed nodes

This article describes the concept of a node with a managed life cycle. It aims to document some of the options for supporting manage d-life cycle nodes in ROS 2. It has been written with consideration for the existing design of the ROS 2 C++ client library, and in particular the current design of executors.

ROS 2.0 Quality of Service policies

This article describes the approach to provide QoS (Quality of Service) policies for ROS 2.0.

ROS 2.0 Message Research

This article captures the research done in regards to the serialization component, including an overview of the current implementation in ROS 1.x and the alternatives for ROS 2.0.

Additional Resources